Author Guidelines


Thank you for choosing to submit your manuscript to the International Journal of Linguistics, Literature and Translation (IJLLT). These author’s guidelines will ensure we have everything required so your manuscript can move through peer review process, production and publication very smoothly. Please take the time to read and follow them as closely as possible, as doing so will ensure your manuscript matches the journal’s requirements. All manuscripts must be submitted electronically through the e-mail to the editor at:


1. General Requirements


1.1 Language


The text should be written in proper English.


1.2 Length of Paper


There is no word/page limit in a manuscript, but the manuscript should not exceed 30 pages.


2. Types of Articles that could be submitted to IJLLT 


  • Original articles
  • Research articles
  • Reviews articles
  • Mini-reviews
  • Case reports
  • Commentaries
  • Editorials
  • Letters to Editor
  • Short reports
  • * Short Communications
  • MA & PhD theses


Short Communications: It is suitable for recording the results of complete small investigations or giving details of new models or hypotheses, innovative methods, techniques or apparatus. The style of main sections need not conform to that of full-length papers. Short communications are 2 to 4 printed pages.


3. Word Processing Formats


The manuscript file should be provided in Microsoft Word format only.


4- Subdivision of the Article


Authors should divide their articles into clearly defined and numbered sections (e.g., 1., 2., 3., etc.). Subsections should be numbered 1.1, 1.2, etc., and sub-subsections should be numbered 1.1.1, 1.1.2, etc. The abstract, acknowledgement, references, and appendices are excluded from the numbering.


5. Organization of Manuscript


The manuscript should follow the following order:

  • Title
  • List of authors, their affiliations and email addresses
  • Keywords
  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Literature review
  • Methodology
  • Results & Discussion
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgements (optional)
  • About the Author(s)
  • References
  • Tables and Figures


5.1 Title


The title should be a concise and informative description of the work that accurately reflect the main scope and content of the paper. It  should be no more than 12 words in length and not contain abbreviations.


5.2 List of authors, their affiliations and email addresses


Please indicate the full names and affiliations of all the authors clearly. Affiliations should include department, university, country, and, if available, and the e-mail address. One of the authors should be designated as the corresponding author, and their email address needs to be included.


5.3 Keywords


The author should provide appropriate and short keywords Immediately after the abstract. The maximum number of the keywords is 10. Listing your keywords will help researchers find your work in databases.


5.4 Abstract


Abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, design/methodology/approach, the main results and major conclusions. It should not exceed 350 words. No citations should be included in the abstract.


 5.5 Introduction


This section should be concise and define the background and significance of the research by considering the relevant literature, particularly the most recent publications. When preparing the introduction, please bear in mind that some readers will not be experts in your field of research.


5.6 Literature Review


This section is dedicated to the significant literature resources that contributed to the research. The author should survey scholarly articles, books and other sources relevant to the area of research, providing a description, summary, and critical evaluation of each work.


5.7 Methodology


This section should contain detailed information about the procedures and steps followed in the study. It can be divided into subsections if several methods are described.


5.8 Results and Discussion


This section is a comparative or descriptive analysis of the study based on the results/findings, previous literature, etc. The results should be offered in a logical sequence, given the most important findings first and addressing the stated objectives of the study. The author should deal only with new or important aspects of the results obtained. The relevance of the findings in the context of existing literature or contemporary practice should be addressed as well.


5.9 Conclusions


The author should clearly explain the important conclusions of the research highlighting its significance and relevance.


5.10 Acknowledgments


The author is free to include acknowledgments or not. This section may include the names of people who in one way or another contributed to the work. It can also include information about supporting grants, funding sources, and so forth.


5.11 About the Author(s)


The author can present his activities, research interests, memberships and affiliations, published research, etc. Authors are also free to include their photos.


5.12 References


References used in the paper should follow the APA style and carefully checked for accuracy and consistency. Please ensure that every reference cited in the text is also present in the reference list and vice versa.



Journal Articles: Brown, J. D. (2013). My twenty-five years of cloze testing research: So what? International Journal of Language Studies, 7(1), 1-32.
Chapters: Salmani Nodoushan, M. A. (2016). Rituals of death as staged communicative acts and pragmemes. In A. Capone & J. L. Mey (Eds.), Interdisciplinary studies in pragmatics, culture and society (pp. 925-959). Heidelberg: Springer.
Book Reviews: Salmani Nodoushan, M. A. (2015). Review of the book Networked learning: An educational paradigm for the age of digital networks, by C. Jones. British Journal of Educational Technology, 46(6), E31-E32.
Books: Wilson, D., & Sperber, D. (2012). Meaning and relevance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Book Editions: Helfer, M. E., Kempe, R. S., & Krugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Edited Books: Duncan, G. J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
3-7 Authors: Hudson, T., Detmer, E., & Brown, J. D. (1995). Developing prototypic measures of cross-cultural pragmatics. Honolulu, HI: National Foreign Languages Resource Center.
More Than Seven Authors: Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., . . . Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57, 323-335.
Theses: Salmani Nodoushan, M. A. (1995). A sociopragmatic comparative study of ostensible invitations in English and Farsi (Unpublished Master’s Thesis). University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
Dissertations: Salmani Nodoushan, M. A. (2002). Text-familiarity, reading tasks and ESP test performance: A study on Iranian LEP and Non-LEP university students (Unpublished PhD Dissertation). University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
Reports/Corpora: JACET Basic Word Revision Committee. (2003). JACET list of 8000 basic words. Tokyo: Japan Association of College English Teachers.
Proceedings: Schnase, J. L., & Cunnius, E. L. (Eds.). (1995). Proceedings from CSCL ’95: The First International Conference on Computer Support for Collaborative Learning. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Multiple Works, Same Author: Brown, J. D. (1983a). A closer look at cloze: Validity and reliability. In J. W. Oller, Jr. (Ed.), Issues in language testing research (pp. 237-250). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Brown, J. D. (1983b). An exploration of morpheme group interactions. In K. Bailey, M. H. Long & S. Peck (Eds.), Second language acquisition studies (pp. 25-40). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.
Salmani Nodoushan, M. A., & Mohiyedin Ghomshei, G. R. (2014). Iconicity of cohesion in Persian causative constructions. Linguistik Online, 68, 29-42.
Salmani Nodoushan, M. A., & Montazeran, H. (2012). The book review genre: A structural move analysis. International Journal of Language Studies, 6(1), 1-30.
Webpage – author, no date Flesch, R. (n.d.). How to write plain English. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from
Webpage –  corporate author Department of Internal Affairs. (n.d.). History of daylight saving. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from
Webpage – no author Rugby World Cup 2011 pools announced. (2008). Retrieved May 1, 2009, from

Notes on the Reference List

A reference list only lists the sources you have referred to in your writing.  

The purpose of the reference list is to allow your sources to be be found by your reader. It also gives credit to authors whose work and ideas you have considered.  All references cited in the text must appear in the reference list, except for personal communications (such as conversations or emails) which cannot be retrieved.

A bibliography is different from a reference list as it lists all the sources used during your research and background reading, not just the ones you refer to in your writing.

Reference list example


Alred, G. J., Brusaw, C. T., & Oliu, W. E. (2009). The business writer’s handbook. New York, NY: St Martin’s Press.

Best, A. (2004). International history of the twentieth century. Retrieved from

Easton, B. (2008). Does poverty affect health? In K. Dew & A. Matheson (Eds.), Understanding health inequalities in Aotearoa New Zealand (pp. 97–106). Dunedin, New Zealand: Otago University Press.

Flesch, R. (n.d.). How to write plain English. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from /writing/flesch.shtml

​Global warming. (2009, June 1). Retrieved June 4, 2009, from

Li, S., & Seale, C. (2007). Learning to do qualitative data analysis: An observational study of doctoral work. Qualitative Health Research, 17, 1442–1452.

Radio New Zealand. (2008). Annual report 2007-2008. Retrieved from /pdf_file/0010/179676/Radio_NZ_Annual_Report_2008.pdf

Read, E. (2007, November 1). Myth-busting gen Y. New Zealand Management. Retrieved from


Title Include the title ‘References’ (one word, beginning with a capital letter, centred, and not in italics
Indent Hanging indent your references (space bar in 5 – 7 spaces for the second and subsequent lines of each reference)
Space between references In general double-space between references
Ampersand Use for 2 – 6 authors, use & before the final author
One author, two publications Order by year of publication, the earlier one first.  Same year of publication for both – add ‘a’ and ‘b’ after the year, inside the brackets. Include this in the in text citation. example: Baheti, J. R. (2001a).
URLs Remove the underlines from URLs so that any underscores ( _ ) can be seen
Same first author, different second author Order alphabetically by second or subsequent authors
Upper case letters (capital letters) Journal title – use headline style; i.e. capitalise all the words, except articles and prepositions

Book title or article title (in a journal, magazine or newspaper) – use sentence style; i.e. capitalise the first word of the title, and subtitle (after the colon), and any proper names

Place of publication USA publishers give the city in full and the abbreviation for the state.
New York, NY
Springfield, MAPublishers outside the USA: Give the city in full and the country in full
London, England
Auckland, New Zealand
Square brackets If format, medium or description information is important for a resource to be retrieved or identified, use square brackets after the title to include this detail:  

Scorsese, M. (Producer), & Lonergan, K. (Writer/Director). (2000). You can
count on me [Motion picture]. United States: Paramount Pictures.


Secondary citations

A secondary citation is where you are citing information or quotes the author of your reference has taken from source that you have not read.

In-text citation:

Seidenberg and McClelland’s study, conducted in 1990 (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993), shows that …
… as some studies show (Seidenberg & McClelland, as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993).
  • Name the author of the original work in your text, cite the secondary source in in-text citation: (as cited in …, 1993)

Reference list entry: 

Coltheart, M., Curtis, B. Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual-route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589–608.


5.13 Tables and Figures


The tables and figures should be presented at the end of the research.


 6. Submission Preparation Checklist


Before submitting the manuscript, author(s) should check the following list.

  • The manuscript has not been previously published, and is not under consideration (in whole or in part) for publication elsewhere.
  • The manuscript file should be sent in Microsoft Word format only.
  • The manuscript has been prepared in the accordance with the Journal’s author guidelines provided above. The manuscript not conforming these guidelines will be returned to the author for revision.
  •  Author(s) has read all the terms and conditions of the journal.
  • You should use this journal’s Paper Template to submit your paper for publication.






























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